Navigating the new rules

Article supplied by CASA Can’t locate that Civil Aviation Advisory Publication (CAAP) you always refer to? Don’t know where to find the form to apply for something? It may no longer exist.

When the new flight operations rules began on 2 December, the guidance material and forms also needed to change. Some documents have been updated; others are no longer needed.

Guidance material

We have compiled a list of CAAPs and ACs that have been removed from our website. You’ll find it below.

It’s easy to find current guidance material. Simply click on the type of guidance material you are after and then narrow your search. And don’t forget to click on any Associated Documents, where you may find useful Annexes.


There are two new forms for regulatory service applications – one for Air Operator’s Certificate (AOC) holders and Part 138 Aerial Work Certificate holders, the other is for Aerial Work Certificate holders only. (There is also a form for Balloon AOC holders.) In nearly all cases, if you’re applying for an air transport or aerial work activity, you only need to use these forms. This includes:

  • making an initial application
  • requesting a renewal or removal of aircraft or activities
  • applying for a significant change or to make notification to CASA of a non-significant change.

There are some application forms that you no longer need to complete. This is because the outcomes-based nature of the rules means that certain activities may have already been approved in your Exposition/Operations Manual and variations to these approvals are now assessed via a significant change application.

All the current forms related to the new flight operations rules. You’ll also find guidance material on management of change including significant and non-significant change.

General tips

CASA is experiencing a significant increase in the number of regulatory services applications, and we currently have a backlog. When contacting us:

  • Check whether you still need to seek approval for that activity in the new regulations.
  • Remember that we only need to be notified of non-significant change, while permission needs to be sought for significant change.
  • If your application has a time critical component please identify this in your email so we can triage appropriately.
  • If your application is not time critical you may not hear from us with a job number for a period of time. We will get to your job as quickly as possible.

You may also wish to consider using an industry delegate.

Once your job has been allocated to a team manager you will contacted by email and given advice about when the job will be completed.

More information

Visit the flight operations rules.

Ask a question through our online form.

Guidance material that has been removed

  • CAAP SMS-01 – Safety Management Systems for Regular Public Transport Operations
  • CAAP SMS-2 – Integration of Human Factors (HF) into Safety Management Systems (SMS)
  • CAAP SMS-3 – Non-Technical Skills Training and Assessment for Regular Public Transport Operations
  • Appendix A to CAAP SMS-3 – Developing a Non‐Technical Skills Training Program: A Case Study Approach
  • Appendix B to CAAP SMS-3 – Enhancing Performance in High Risk Environments – Recommendations for the use of Behavioural Markers
  • Appendix C to CAAP SMS-3 – Example of a high capacity airline’s non‐technical skills assessment
  • CAAP SMS-4 – Guidance on the establishment of a Flight Data Analysis Program (FDAP) – Safety Management Systems (SMS)
  • CAAP 20.4-01 – Supplemental Oxygen Requirements for Cabin Crew Members in Pressurised Aircraft Above Flight Level 250
  • CAAP 89W-1 – Guidelines on provision of obstacle information for take-off flight planning purposes
  • AC 91U-02 – Required Navigation Performance 10 (RNP 10) – Operational Certificate
  • AC 91U-03 – Required Navigation Performance 4 (RNP 4) – Operational Certificate
  • CAAP 92A-1 – Guidelines on aerodromes intended for small aeroplanes conducting RPT operations
  • CAAP 92-1 – Guidelines for aeroplane landing area
  • CAAP 92-3 – Guidelines for manned balloon launching and landing areas
  • CAAP 155-1 – Aerobatics
  • CAAP 157-1 – Balloon flight over populous areas
  • CAAP 166-01 – Operations in the vicinity of non-controlled aerodromes
  • CAAP 166-02 – Pilots’ responsibility for collision avoidance in the vicinity of non-controlled aerodromes using ‘see-and-avoid’
  • CAAP 174-01 – Night vision imaging – helicopters
  • CAAP 178-1 – Non-precision Approaches (NPA) & Approaches with Vertical Guidance (APV)
  • CAAP 179A-1 – Guidelines for navigation using GNSS
  • CAAP 215-1 – Guide to the preparation of operations manuals
  • Annex A to CAAP 215-1 – Policy Procedures
  • Annex B to CAAP 215-1 – Aircraft Operations
  • Annex C to CAAP 215-1 – Aerodromes and Routes
  • Annex D to CAAP 215-1 – Training and Checking
  • Annex E to CAAP 215-1(3.2) – List of Headings
  • CAAP 217-1 – CAR 217 Flight Crew-Training and checking organisations
  • CAAP 233-1 – Electronic Flight Bags
  • CAAP 234-1 – Guidelines for aircraft fuel requirements
  • Annex A to CAAP 234-1 – Sample fuel calculations – Single-engine piston aeroplane (Cessna 210)
  • Annex B to CAAP 234-1 – Sample fuel calculations – Multi-engine turboprop aeroplane (Beechcraft B200)
  • Annex C to CAAP 234-1 – Sample fuel calculations – Multi-engine turbojet aeroplane (Learjet 60)
  • CAAP 235A-1 – Minimum Runway Width – for aeroplanes engaged in RPT and Charter operations with a maximum take-off weight greater than 5700 kg
  • CAAP 235-1 – Standard passenger and baggage weights
  • CAAP 235-2(2) – Carriage and restraint of small children in aircraft
  • CAAP 235-3 – RPT operations in multiengine aeroplanes with MTOW not above 5700kg – aeroplane weight and performance limitations
  • CAAP 235-4 – Guidelines for the Consideration and Design of: Engine Out SID (EOSID) and Engine Out Missed Approach Procedures
  • CAAP 235-05 – New performance provisions for CAO 20.7.1B and CAO 20.7.4
  • CAAP 253-1 – Ditching
  • CAAP 253-02 – Passenger safety information: Guidelines on content and standard of safety information to be provided to passengers by aircraft operators
  • CAAP 257-EX-02 – Conduct of practice autoland operations
Navigating new rules

No sign of 5G interference in Australia

Article supplied by CASA

There’s good news for those worried about the fierce debate in the United States about the impact of 5G signals on aircraft safety systems: there are no indications of similar problems in Australia.

Picture of a telecommunications tower at sunset

The Civil Aviation Safety Authority (CASA) has been closely monitoring the issue and so far we’ve seen no evidence 5G transmissions are currently affecting aircraft in this country.

U.S. airlines and aircraft manufacturers raised concerns some time ago that a segment of the airwaves to be used by American telecommunications companies for 5G is too close to that utilised by radio altimeters that measure an aircraft’s clearance height over terrain.

Measurements by the altimeters are used by other aircraft safety systems and there are concerns the rollout of 5G near U.S. airports would affect aircraft systems such as those used for automatic landings, wind shear prediction and terrain warnings.

While CASA and the Australian Transport Safety Bureau (ATSB) have urged pilots to report any anomalies with radio altimeters near 5G towers, they have yet to see any.

In fact, the ATSB says there have been no reports of radio altimeter incidents linked to 5G since the telecommunications technology rolled out 2 years ago.

One reason for this is that Australian 5G transmissions currently do not extend into the part of the spectrum worrying the U.S. aviation industry.

Radio altimeters operate in 4.2-4.4Ghz range and the 5G transmissions subject to the interference debate are in the adjacent 3.7-4.2GHz spectrum. Australian 5G transmissions currently top out at 3.7GHz, well below the radio altimeter frequencies.

CASA issued its latest airworthiness bulletin on the 5G issue on 17 January 2022.

Both agencies are keen to hear from pilots who notice any spurious radio altimeter incidents occurring at altitudes below 2500ft above ground level. You can report any issues via our online form and at the ATSB here

Reg Wrap-up

Article supplied by CASA.

Flight operations rules. The new flight operations rules commenced on 2 December. 

Regular editions were sent of an e-newsletter What can I do now? with news and updates to help industry transition to the new rules.
14 December – revised pilot guides, our clarification of the cockpit recorder rules and how the rules have come together.
9 December – thanking everyone who has worked through the transition steps, next steps, tips and tricks on using our new website, and newly published material.
29 November – recap of what happens if you don’t submit and last-minute clarifications on instruments, chemical spraying and affected delegates and authorised persons.
22 November – what happens if you don’t submit any documentation and making it easier to do so, what’s happening to some of the rules you may be familiar with and new training modules.
15 November – how we’re making it easier to find the rules, minor MOS changes, sending your instruments and changes for sport and recreational aviation.
8 November – your letter from the Director of Aviation Safety, the recordings of our live question and answer sessions and what’s new in guidance materials.We also made, updated or repealed a series of instruments and Civil Aviation Orders to support the commencement of flight operations rules.
See our website for the full list.
Guides for pilots now available
We have updated and refreshed our guides designed to help pilots and operators understand the rules of the air:
Visual Flight Rules Guide (VFRG) 
Part 91 Plain English Guide (Part 91 PEG) updatedDeferral for new sport and recreational aviation rules, balloon rules
We have deferred making of the Part 103, Part 105 and Part 131 Manuals of Standards (MOSs) following industry feedback. Relevant CASA instruments and Civil Aviation Orders have been re-issued for an interim period to maintain existing requirements while we work with industry to finalise each MOS.
Sport and recreational aircraft
Part 103 of Civil Aviation Safety Regulations (CASR) and its associated MOS applies to the operation of certain sport and recreational aircraft administered by Sport Aviation Bodies. While the Part 103 MOS is being finalised, these operations will be subject to amended Civil Aviation Orders (CAOs) to ensure continued operation of sport and recreational aircraft from 2 December 2021. The amended CAOs include exemption from Part 103 and relevant provisions in Part 91. The amended CAOs include an updated CAO 95.55 which now permits an ASAO to administer operation of aircraft with a higher maximum take-off weight (MTOW) of 760 Kg once updated manuals are approved by CASA. This change reflects previously supported consultation.
The updated CAOs are: CAO 95.4CAO 95.8CAO 95.10CAO 95.12CAO 95.12.1CAO 95.32CAO 95.55.
Parachuting from aircraft 
Part 105 of CASR and its associated MOS prescribe operating rules and details standards for conducting parachuting from aircraft. Relevant CASA instruments have been re-issued for an interim period to maintain current requirements. The re-issued/new instruments are: Instrument 263/02 – CAR 152 approval (ASA)  Instrument 11/17 – Direction (ASA)  Instrument 36/19 – CAR 152 approval (APF) Instrument 84/18 – Direction (APF)  Instrument EX153/21 – Trainee parachutists exemption (new instrument)Balloons and hot air airships
Part 131 of CASR and its associated MOS work together with Part 91 of CASR to describe all the general operating and flight rules for manned free balloons and hot air airships. While the Part 131 MOS is being finalised, relevant Civil Aviation Orders (CAO) have been updated to ensure a continued effective regulatory scheme for Part 131 aircraft operations from 2 December 2021. 

The updated CAOs are: CAO 95.53 (Commercial Balloon Flying Training and Balloon Transport Operations) Instrument 2021, CAO 95.54 (Part 131 Recreational Activity and Specialised Balloon Operations) Instrument 2021.
CAO 82.0 and CAO 82.7 have been updated for operators conducting commercial balloon flying training under an AOC.
 Extra time to complete certain pilot examsWe have published a new exemption (CASA EX138/20) to assist individuals who may be having difficulty completing their Commercial Pilot Licence and Air Transport Pilot Licence examination program due to border closures and social distancing rules affecting their ability to attend exam venues.
ConsultationsSouth-west capes, Western Australia, broadcast areaThe Office of Airspace Regulation is proposing a broadcast area in the vicinity of the south-west capes, Western Australia, following issues raised by local stakeholders. Provide your feedback by 10 January.
 Automated airspace authorisation trialWe’re seeking industry feedback on our automated airspace trial which allows operators who hold a remotely piloted aircraft operator’s certificate, or those who operate under one with a remote pilot licence, to apply to fly an RPA within 5.5 km of a controlled airport. Visit our Consultation Hub today. The survey closes on Friday 28 January 2022.
 Proposed changes to regulations for remotely piloted aircraftThe proposed amendments will benefit industry, reducing complexities and regulatory burden. To have your say, visit the CASA Consultation Hub. Submissions close on Monday 7 February 2022.
We have published the summary of consultation for the following:Proposed relocation of NVIS legislation into Parts 91, 133 and 138 Manuals of Standards Proposed new Part 131 manual of standards – balloons and hot airships 
Guidance materialsAdvisory circularThe following advisory circulars were published during November/December:AC 131-04 v1.0 – Management of change for balloon transport AOC holdersAC 91-09 v1.0 – Ditching AC 91-25 v1.0 – Fuel and oil safetyAC 91-22 v2.0 – Aircraft checklist AC 91-10 v1.1 – Operations in the vicinity of non-controlled aerodromes AC 91-02 v1.1 – Guidelines for aeroplanes not exceeding 5 700 kg – suitable places to take-off and land AC 91-18 v1.1 – Restraints of infants and children AC 135-13 v1.0 – Prescribed single-engine aeroplanes. Acceptable Means of Compliance and Guidance MaterialThe following Acceptable Means of Compliance and Guidance Material were published during November:AMC/GM Part 131 v1.1 – Balloons and hot air airships AMC/GM Part 119 v2.1 – Australian air transport operators – certification and management AMC/GM Part 91 v2.1 – General operating and flight rules.

Fatigue Management

Article supplied by CASA

Latest updates

  • CAO 48.1 will remain in force after the 2 December 2021 introduction of the flying operations CASRs (Parts 119, 121, 133, 135). Once transitioned to CAO 48.1 by 1 July 2021 operators will not be required to make a further amendment the fatigue sections of their operations manuals to comply with the new CASRs.
  • CASR 91.520 establishes obligations on all flight crew to be fit for duty including with respect to fatigue.

CASA’s Plain English Guide for fatigue management has been developed to make it easy for operators to understand the regulation, requirements and their obligations. This guide provides regulatory information in a simple, easy-to-read and understandable language.

Fatigue risk management involves operators and pilots taking steps to manage increasing levels of fatigue so that it does not result in a safety risk.

On this page

New fatigue rules

Most operators need to comply with new fatigue rules from 1 July 2021. There are three routes for transition:

Resources are available to assist operators transition to the new fatigue rules, including our Plain English Guide for fatigue management and our  Fatigue transition policy (PDF 350.91 KB) that provides information for operators on how to meet transition timeframes and comply with the new rules.

Fatigue panel

To support industry with the implementation of the new fatigue rules, CASA has established a fatigue panel. The panel is made up of regulatory services staff experienced in fatigue policy and operationalising regulatory requirements and human performance specialists, providing a high level of advice relating to regulatory services and surveillance standards for CAO 48.1 Instrument 2019.

The fatigue panel is responsible for supporting efficient and consistent decision-making under the new fatigue rules. Ensuring consistency in regulatory services and surveillance activities, the panel provides specialist technical advice, assesses and evaluates:

  • transition plans for operators transitioning to the prescriptive rules (Appendices 1 to 6)
  • applications for minor variations to the prescriptive rules (Appendices 2 to 6)
  • fatigue risk management systems (FRMS) applications (Appendix 7).

Fatigue enquiries

CASA has changed how it manages enquiries and correspondence relating to the fatigue rules.

Please choose one of the options below that is relevant to your enquiry:

  • If you are seeking regulatory clarification, guidance, advice or support regarding the fatigue regulations submit an enquiry using the Regulatory guidance enquiry webform
  • If you are wanting to make an application to CASA or submit documents to support an existing application email
  • If neither of the criteria above applies to you, or you are uncertain of how to proceed, submit an enquiry using the Regulatory guidance enquiry webform.

Drone registration levy introduced


This article is supplied by CASA.

The Australian Government recently announced the introduction of an annual drone registration levy for some commercially operated drones.

Commercial drone registration was introduced on 30 September 2020 and became mandatory on 28 January 2021.

The new drone registration levy only applies to drones flown for business or on behalf of an employer.

For drones, weighing:

  • 500 g or less, it’s free 
  • more than 500 g, an annual registration levy of $40 per drone applies.

The registration levy applies to drones registered on or after 28 July 2021.

For drones registered prior to 28 July 2021, there will continue to be no charge for the registration term. Registration is valid for 12-months.

For more information, go to Register your drone.

Safe integration of RPAS into Australian skies


Article supplied by CASA.GOV.AU

10 March 2021

Acting director of aviation safety Graeme Crawford and remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPAS) branch manager Luke Gumley have announced several new initiatives that CASA will deliver to help ensure the safe integration of RPAS into Australian skies.

The announcements took place at the Australian Association for Unmanned Systems’ annual conference in Canberra and included:

To keep up to date with the latest drone information and updates subscribe to our mailing list.